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C) over the past 160 years were developed using living larch trees at two forest sites, each with different annual precipitation, in eastern Siberia: Spasskaya Pad (SP) (62°14′N, 129°37′E); and Elgeeii (EG) (60°0′N, 133°49′E).

Intrinsic water-use efficiency (i WUE) was derived from tree-ring δC.

These sites ranged in grain size from ash-sized to meter-scale blocks and were all rhyolitic in composition.

However, natural ecosystems are more complicated so that i WUE can be affected by factors other than atmospheric CO) forest in northeast Spain, where the condition of the trees had reached a physiological threshold of adaptive capacity for drought.

These studies suggest that changes in tree physiology are triggered by climate changes, and may vary depending on the species and/or environment.

The process of water saving is considered to result in the increase in i WUE.

This formulation was supported by laboratory experiments ( Ceulemans and Mousseau, 1994 and Ainsworth and Long, 2005).

Our results suggest that effect of increase in atmospheric CO on larch tree growth is not sufficient to compensate for temperature-induced water stress on larch growth in eastern Siberia and differences in precipitation and forest productivity largely affect the larch tree response to changing climate in eastern Siberia., representing about 70% of the world's boreal forests (Kasischke, 2000 and Food and Agriculture Organization, 2001).

The study of boreal forest ecosystems is important, because of its sensitivity and vulnerability to regional and global climate changes ().Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI) is the measure of the resistance to temperature change and has been used to determine parameters such as grain/block size, density/mantling, and the presence of subsurface soil moisture/ice.Our objective is to document the quantitative relationship between ATI derived from orbital visible/near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) data and tephra fall mantling of the Mono Craters and Domes (MCD) in California, which were chosen as an analog for partially mantled flows observed at Arsia Mons volcano on Mars.suggested that temperature-induced drought might limit tree growth under the limited availability of soil moisture, using North American white spruces.Several other studies have also reported a decreasing trend in recent tree growth (e.g., ).To the contrary, reported that high soil moisture content caused browning and discoloration of larch needles in the summer of 2007.

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