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One 38-year-old woman alleged in the lawsuit that a worker said he would pay for a "date" and grabbed her breasts.The worker would wait outside, "just staring at my house for long periods of time.

"But it can act as a catalyst to change people's thoughts."...

(Jin Kim)In the lawsuit, filed by attorneys Cary J. Hirsch, the women say the alleged abuse included sexual threats and occasions when Coleman allegedly exposed himself.

In the lawsuit, the women say the abuse at Gilmor Homes was perpetuated primarily by maintenance supervisor Clinton Coleman and another worker.

They say city Housing Commissioner Paul Graziano and other housing officials "ignored numerous complaints and repeatedly allowed abusers to maintain their positions of power." The women are seeking more than $10 million each for each of about 15 counts.

For present purposes, subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) are referred to as the family-care provisions, and subparagraph (D) as the self-care provision. Petitioner filed suit, alleging that his employer, the Maryland Court of Appeals, an instrumentality of the State, violated the FMLA by denying him self-care leave. Congress may also abrogate the States' immunity pursuant to its powers under §5 of the Fourteenth Amendment, but it must make that intention "unmistakably clear in the language of the statute," , 521 U. Congress was concerned about the economic burdens imposed by illness-related job loss on employees and their families and about discrimination based on illness, not sex. Congress considered evidence that "men and women are out on medical leave approximately equally." H. In the first defense, the Court is told employers assume women take more self-care leave than men. In other words, if employers assume women take self-care leave more often than men (the first defense), a self-care provision will not provide an incentive to hire women. Under this Court's precedents, more is required to subject unconsenting States to suits for damages, particularly where, as here, it is for violations of a provision (the self-care provision) that is a supposedly preventive step in aid of already preventive provisions (the family-care provisions). S., at 88 ("One means by which we have made such a determination . The "few fleeting references" to how self-care leave is inseparable from family-care leave fall short of what is required for a valid abrogation of States' immunity from suits for damages. To the extent, then, that the self-care provision addresses neutral leave policies with a disparate impact on women, it is not directed at a pattern of constitutional violations. affected by" the self-care provision are unconstitutional, "the scope of the [self-care provision is] out of proportion to its supposed remedial or preventive objectives." , 563 U.

The FMLA also creates a private right of action for equitable relief and damages "against any employer (including a public agency) in any Federal or State court." §2617(a)(2). 721, 730−732, this Court held that Congress could subject States to suit for violations of subparagraph (C) based on evidence of family-leave policies that discriminated on the basis of sex. At the time the FMLA was enacted, there was no evidence of such discrimination or stereotyping in sick-leave policies. such evidence is insufficient [to prove a constitutional violation] even where the Fourteenth Amendment subjects state action to strict scrutiny." , 531 U. The statute in question is the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 107 Stat. And there is scant evidence in the legislative history of a purported stereotype harbored by employers that women take self-care leave more often than men. In addition petitioner's first defense of the self-care provision contradicts his second defense of the provision. But if the first defense is correct, the second defense is wrong. is by examining the legislative record containing the reasons for Congress' action"). Accordingly, I would affirm the judgment of the Court of Appeals. Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment provides: "No State shall . Indeed, the FMLA was originally envisioned as a way to guarantee--without singling out women or pregnancy--that pregnant women would not lose their jobs when they gave birth. "These defendants are subjecting the tenants to life-threatening living conditions, including but not limited to: mold, lack of heat, rodent and insect infestations and risk of electrocution."These victims are too poor to move and relocate their families," they continue."Consequently, they are left with the impossible choice of either succumbing to unwanted sexual demands in order to save themselves and their children from life-threatening conditions in their homes, or, living in squalor."Hansel said the women continue to fear for their safety."These abusers hold tremendous power," the women said in the lawsuit.The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) entitles an employee to take up to 12 work weeks of unpaid leave per year for (A) the care of a newborn son or daughter; (B) the adoption or foster-care placement of a child; (C) the care of a spouse, son, daughter, or parent with a serious medical condition; and (D) the employee's own serious health condition when the condition interferes with the employee's ability to perform at work. The Fourth Circuit affirmed, holding that unlike the family-care provision in , the self-care provision was not directed at an identified pattern of gender-based discrimination and was not congruent and proportional to any pattern of sex-based discrimination on the part of States. (a) Under the federal system, States, as sovereigns, are immune from damages suits, unless they waive that defense. When the FMLA was enacted, Congress had no evidence that States were excluding pregnancy-related illnesses from their leave policies. Also, there are no congressional findings of, or evidence on, how the self-care provision is necessary to the family-care provisions or how it reduces employer discrimination against women. The fact that most single parents happen to be women demonstrates, at most, that the self-care provision was directed at remedying neutral leave restrictions that have a disparate effect on women. There is "little support in the record for the concerns that supposedly animated" the self-care provision. Only supposition and conjecture support the contention that the self-care provision is necessary to make the family-care provisions effective. Congress must rely on more than abstract generalities to subject the States to suits for damages. The Federal District Court dismissed the suit on sovereign immunity grounds. Although the self-care provision offers some women a benefit by allowing them to take leave for pregnancy-related illnesses, the provision, as a remedy, is not congruent and proportional to any identified constitutional violations. (2) Petitioner also argues that the self-care provision is a necessary adjunct to the family-care provision sustained in But his claim--that the provisions work in tandem to ensure the equal availability of total FMLA leave time to women and men despite their different leave-usage patterns―is unconvincing and does not comply with the requirements of . (3) Finally, petitioner contends that the self-care provision helps single parents keep their jobs when they get ill. To the contrary, the self-care provision would provide an incentive to discriminate against women. said nothing about the existence or adequacy of state" sick-leave policies. , at 89, are stated as conclusions, unsupported by evidence or findings about how the self-care provision interrelates to the family-care provisions to counteract employers' incentives to discriminate against women. such evidence alone is insufficient [to prove a constitutional violation] even where the Fourteenth Amendment subjects state action to strict scrutiny." , 426 U. Because, moreover, it is "unlikely that many of the [neutral leave policies] . Activists are trying to transform Sandtown-Winchester by painting murals and planting gardens around the neighborhood where Freddie Gray was arrested.

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