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Ropes, as may be seen from the passage which I quote from him (p. I therefore venture to substitute the non- committal symbol Z for this question-begging term, and denote the agreement of the oldest Greek Uncials J-S ABC by F (= Graeci). Various solutions of this problem have been suggested. This arrangement suggests that they are not genuine. It would occupy too much space to discuss these here, so I will content myself with referring any one who is interested by these remarks to the full details and conspectus of figures which I have given in my book (p. It will be sufficient to say here that the unit of 26 to which I have called attention occurs with considerable regularity and exactness. Here we may notice that 26 X58 = 1508 and 26 x 65 1690. If so, these obelizations reveal an abridged text in the act of making. 37 anetius (= dvat- TIOS), and the retention of the Greek collocation of words, e.g. It can be shown by a number of tests that the translation of Acts stands apart from those of Evv. xliv INTRODUCTION On the other hand it has been disputed by some distinguished scholars, who have maintained that 3L d is actually prior to D. I er)X6ov ot fj.a6r)Tai avrov et abierunt discipuli eius et uenerunt discipuli eius In D a err. (d) In many cases where 3L d differs from Z, the translator appears to have had beside him an old-Latin MS. It was noticed by Scrivener that important differences between D and S/ 3 are chiefly found in Mk. It is precisely in the case of these documents that the use of an old-Latin MS. rov ovo/xaros Kvptov 3 If](rov Xptarou, ev TO) o Vo/xari 'Irjfrov Xpicrrov : SO vi.

I now proceed to say a few words about the special problem of Acts. I will not here repeat what I have said in the Introduction (pp. In view of previous experience I thought it worth while to examine the length of some of the shorter passages. I would illustrate from the THE SPECIAL PROBLEM OF ACTS xxxi two largest figures, both of which concern intervening blocks. In some cases where the unit does not work out so exactly, there are some interesting agreements and sequences. TOVTO XOLTTOT) and once for an obelized passage ( 217-18 -n-avra yap . In consequence of the new light cast by this and other evidence upon methods of abbreviation, 1 I found it necessary to modify the view which I had. 28 ep^o/xej/cov Se TOUTOJV yeivecr#ai incipientium autem horum fieri In Acts the most striking Graecisms are the continual attempts to translate the Greek article, especially by ipse (23 exx.), the transliterations of Greek words, e.g. The nomina sacra are different, the vocabulary is different, the methods of translating Greek idioms are different. a case can be made out, though not with certainty, for referring the translations of Jn. It cannot be denied that in a certain number of cases D has been interpolated from 3L d , but these are in my judgement rare.

It is therefore quite possible that this peculiar method of line- division goes back to remote antiquity. As the method which he followed was not apparent, I happened to apply an arithmetical test, which I have often found very illuminating when dealing with omissions. Barjesus, however, can mean nothing but 'son of Jesus'. This difficulty vanishes, if the shorter text was the work of an abbreviator whose mentality was different from that of the original writer. It exhibits all possible varieties of mechanical errors and corruptions.

ro) ; the hours of the day during which Paul preached at Ephesus (xix. which disguises long omissions by unskilful botching.

9) ; the statement that the rioters at Ephesus 'ran out into the street' (xix. 34, which explains how it was that Silas was still in Antioch (v. The Bale edition was founded on a good and fairly complete MS. PREFACE xi is to collect and combine the scattered evidence given by the various witnesses to the Z text.

These facts are allowed by the most thoroughgoing opponents of the text in question, even by Dr. The meaning of these obels has been much discussed. Christ thought that they were affixed on subjective grounds by a critic whose abilities he does not rate highly. Blass appears to have treated the obelizations more seriously. Similar groups of obelized passages occur in 99-101, 134-8, and 191-218. (c) E d is in the main a ' slavish ' translation from D. similar to the Veronensis (H b ) or Corbeiensis (3L ff ), with the result that the Latin vocabulary in this Gospel differs notably from that in the rest of Evv. If these observations are sound, it follows that, except where D is illegible or mutilated, the value of 2L d is practically nil. When, however, METHODS OF ABBREVIATOR xlv we have not the evidence of Z, if E d has a reading which does not agree with T, the probability is that this was derived from D. (a) The first thing which any abbreviator would do would be to excise passages which he considered to be otiose. I will content myself with a reference to Ropes (p.

Hort, and no one has stated them with greater candour than the latest editor, Prof. The question therefore in Acts which dwarfs all others is whether this extra matter is genuine or not. On one occasion he thinks that this person wished to abridge 1 In this passage the palimpsest has sentias for sentires (cett.~) and es for esses If these readings are attributed to the model, the total number of letters is 183. In his text the passages thus marked are printed in smaller letters. The last of these is the most complicated, consisting of seven obelized passages and six intervening blocks. TOVTOV TOIOVTOV (15 1)- *34~9 ' L A 1 ^ y&P Gir We VOVTWV (l688). This is very extraordinary and can hardly be due to chance. The natural interpretation to put on these figures is that an ancient critic who wished to abridge this speech obelized passages which generally, though, of course, not always, coincided with lines in his text. Si IKCLVOV xpovov quidem ergo petrus per multo tempore (b) E d is the work of several hands. This, I need hardly say, is the view which has been generally held. As a rule, however, the translator did not use any intelligence which he possessed, but followed D through thick and thin, regardless of the sense, as Scrivener says, ' in blind, helpless bewilderment '. were mixed up with his own literal translation from the Greek. Where it agrees with D it adds nothing to the evidence, where it agrees with other MSS. ccxxviii) who, writing from his point of view, says that the ' Western ' text repeatedly has in excess, as compared with its rival, such phrases as 810.

28); the information that Paul when sailing from Samos to Miletus broke his journey at Trogylia (xx. 40) after having previously received permission to go to Jerusalem ( v - 33)' Some writers consider this obscurity to be a laudable charac- teristic of Luke's style. It was, however, the Paris edition that was several times reproduced, while the Bale edition found no successor. This was done in masterly fashion by Blass in his reconstitution of what he considers to be the ' Roman form ' of Acts (= Z) as contrasted with a second edition by the same writer (= T).

15), or that on his journey from Caesarea to Jerusalem he spent a night in a village on the way (xxi. Thus Ramsay remarks ' Luke expects much of x PREFACE his readers'. 27, according to Z, Paul is invited by Corinthians residing in Ephesus to go with them to Corinth : according to r,he went of his own will. i, according to Z, Paul wishes of his own accord to go to Jerusalem, but is told by the Spirit to return to Ephesus ; T merely states that he went to Ephesus, without any mention of his first plan or of the intervention of the Spirit. 8, according to Z, nap ov refers to Claudius Lysias ; according to F, it refers to Paul. 1 If the considerations which have been advanced are sound, it follows that the supremacy of what are frequently called the ' Great Uncials ' (i.e. My own text is not indeed founded upon that of Blass, since I have considered all points independently and very frequently differ from him.

The hypothesis of deliberate abbreviation clears up a number of difficulties which were left unexplained by the theory of accidental omission (p. The methods of the abbreviator are discussed on pp. His most noticeable trait is his contempt for minute details. Apart from these differences due to abridgement, there are irreconcilable variants. Two editiones principes of his works appeared in the same year (1544), one of which was printed at Paris and the other at Bale.

He was not interested in the ' seven steps ' which led up to the prison at Jerusalem (xii. The Paris edition was taken from a corrupt and mutilated MS.

This is that in Acts Z and F differ conspicuously in length. The passages which appear in Z, but are absent from T, are very numerous ; some of them are of consider- able length, e.g. xxf.), but will state quite briefly that I agree with Ropes when he says that only two solutions are possible. He adopts the first alternative, I adopt the second. I took first the shortest one which I could find : 49 KOL TTo AAmis 77817 Trapaj3dv Taa/? Thus the number 507 occurs twice, once for an intermediate block ( 98-9 KOL TL c^o-ere . previously expressed concerning the shorter text of Acts, viz. On the other hand there is a vast body of evidence.

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